The Christmas Tree
Trees and Ornaments
The fir tree has a long association with Christianity, it
began in Germany almost 1,000 years ago when St Boniface, who
converted the German people to Christianity, was said to have
come across a group of pagans worshipping an oak tree. In anger,
St Boniface is said to have cut down the oak tree and to his
amazement a young fir tree sprung up from the roots of the oak
tree. St Boniface took this as a sign of the Christian faith.
But it was not until the 16th century that fir trees were brought
indoors at Christmas time.
CHRISTMAS TREE TRADITION
HAS ANCIENT ORIGINS
King Tut never saw a Christmas tree, but he would have understood
the tradition which traces back long before the first Christmas,
says David Robson, Extension Educator, Horticulture with the
Springfield Extension Center.
The Egyptians were part of a long line of cultures that treasured
and worshipped evergreens. When the winter solstice arrive, they
brought green date palm leaves into their homes to symbolize
life's triumph over death.
The Romans celebrated the winter solstice with a fest called
Saturnalia in honor of Saturnus, the god of agriculture. They
decorated their houses with greens and lights and exchanged gifts.
They gave coins for prosperity, pastries for happiness, and lamps
to light one's journey through life.
Centuries ago in Great Britain, woods priests called Druids
used evergreens during mysterious winter solstice rituals. The
Druids used holly and mistletoe as symbols of eternal life, and
place evergreen branches over doors to keep away evil spirits.
Late in the Middle Ages, Germans and Scandinavians placed
evergreen trees inside their homes or just outside their doors
to show their hope in the forthcoming spring. Our modern Christmas
tree evolved from these early traditions.
Legend has it that Martin Luther began the tradition of decorating
trees to celebrate Christmas. One crisp Christmas Eve, about
the year 1500, he was walking through snow-covered woods and
was struck by the beauty of a group of small evergreens. Their
branches, dusted with snow, shimmered in the moonlight. When
he got home, he set up a little fir tree indoors so he could
share this story with his children. He decorated it with candles,
which he lighted in honor of Christ's birth.
The Christmas tree tradition most likely came to the United
States with Hessian troops during the American Revolution, or
with German immigrants to Pennsylvania and Ohio, adds Robson.
But the custom spread slowly. The Puritans banned Christmas
in New England. Even as late as 1851, a Cleveland minister nearly
lost his job because he allowed a tree in his church. Schools
in Boston stayed open on Christmas Day through 1870, and sometimes
expelled students who stayed home.
The Christmas tree market was born in 1851 when Catskill farmer
Mark Carr hauled two ox sleds of evergreens into New York City
and sold them all. By 1900, one in five American families had
a Christmas tree, and 20 years later, the custom was nearly universal.
Christmas tree farms sprang up during the depression. Nurserymen
couldn't sell their evergreens for landscaping, so they cut them
for Christmas trees. Cultivated trees were preferred because
they have a more symmetrical shape then wild ones.
Six species account for about 90 percent of the nation's Christmas
tree trade. Scotch pine ranks first, comprising about 40 percent
of the market, followed by Douglas fir which accounts for about
35 percent. The other big sellers are noble fir, white pine,
balsam fir and white spruce.
Premission was granted for Internet use by --- Written by:
David Robson, Extension Educator, Horticulture; Springfield Extension
CHRISTMAS TREE HISTORY
Did a celebration around a Christmas tree on a bitter cold
Christmas Eve at Trenton, New Jersey, turn the tide for Colonial
forces in 1776? According to legend, Hessian mercenaries were
so reminded of home by a candlelit evergreen tree that they abandoned
their guardposts to eat, drink and be merry. Washington attacked
that night and defeated them.
The Christmas tree has gone through a long process of development
rich in many legends, says David Robson, Extension Educator,
Horticulture, with the Springfield Extension Center.
Some historians trace the lighted Christmas tree to Martin
Luther. He attached lighted candles to a small evergreen tree,
trying to simulate the reflections of the starlit heaven -- the
heaven that looked down over Bethlehem on the first Christmas
Until about 1700, the use of Christmas trees appears to have
been confined to the Rhine River District. From 1700 on, when
lights were accepted as part of the decorations, the Christmas
tree was well on its way to becoming a tradition in Germany.
Then the tradition crossed the Atlantic with the Hessian soldiers.
Some people trace the origin of the Christmas tree to an earlier
period. Even before the Christian era, trees and boughs were
used for ceremonials. Egyptians, in celebrating the winter solstice
-- the shortest day of the year -- brought green date palms into
their homes as a symbol of "life triumphant over death".
When the Romans observed the feast of saturn, part of the ceremony
was the raising of an evergreen bough. The early Scandinavians
were said to have paid homage to the fir tree.
To the Druids, sprigs of evergreen holly in the house meant
eternal life; while to the Norsemen, they symbolized the revival
of the sun god Balder. To those inclined toward superstition,
branches of evergreens placed over the door kept out witches,
ghosts, evil spirits and the like.
This use does not mean that our Christmas tree custom evolved
solely from paganism, any more than did some of the present-day
use of sighed in various religious rituals.
Trees and branches can be made purposeful as well as symbolic.
The Christmas tree is a symbol of a living Christmas spirit and
brings into our lives a pleasant aroma of the forest. The fact
that balsam fir twigs, more than any other evergreen twigs, resemble
crosses may have had much to do with the early popularity of
balsam fir used as Christmas trees.
Written by: David Robson Extension Educator, Horticulture
Springfield Extension Center
Interesting Christmas Traditions:
The Christmas Tree Farm Network